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Survival outcomes and resuscitation process measures in maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest

Published:October 21, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.09.046

      Background

      Maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest is a rare event with the potential for resuscitation treatment delays because of the difficulty accessing hospital obstetrical units and limited simulation training or resuscitation experience of obstetrical staff. However, it is unclear whether survival rates and processes of care differ between women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest and those with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest.

      Objective

      We aimed determine whether to there are delays in process measures and differences in survival outcomes between pregnant and nonpregnant women who have in-hospital cardiac arrest.

      Study Design

      Using data from 2000 to 2019 in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, we compared resuscitation outcomes between women aged 18 to 50 years with a maternal or nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using a nonparsimonious propensity score, we matched patients with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest to as many as 10 women with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest. We constructed conditional logistic regression models to compare survival outcomes (survival to discharge, favorable neurologic survival [discharge cerebral performance score of 1], and return of spontaneous circulation) and processes of care (delayed defibrillation [>2 minutes] and administration of epinephrine [>5 minutes]) between women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest vs those with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest.

      Results

      Overall, 421 women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest were matched by propensity score to 2316 women with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest. The mean age among propensity score–matched women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest was 31.4 (standard deviation, 6.5) years, where 33.7% were of Black race and 86.9% had an initial nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythm. Unadjusted survival rates were higher in women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest than in women with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest: survival to discharge of 45.1% vs 26.5%, survival with cerebral performance category 1 status of 36.1% vs 17.7%, and return of spontaneous circulation of 75.8% vs 70.6%. After adjustment, there was no difference in the likelihood of survival to discharge (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–1.73) or return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.65–1.35) between women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest and those with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest. However, women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest were more likely to have favorable neurologic survival (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–2.33). Compared with women with a nonmaternal in-hospital cardiac arrest, women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest had similar rates of delayed defibrillation (42.5% vs 34.4%; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 0.41–3.18]; P=.31) and delayed administration of epinephrine (13.8% vs 10.6%; odds ratio, 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.50–1.86]; P=.09).

      Conclusion

      Although concerns have been raised about resuscitation outcomes in women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest, the rates of survival and resuscitation processes of care were not worse in women with a maternal in-hospital cardiac arrest.

      Key words

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