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Second primary cancers after vulvar and vaginal cancers

      Abstract

      OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the occurrence of second primary cancers after vaginal and vulvar cancers. STUDY DESIGN: Women in whom cancers of the vagina (in situ, n = 461; invasive, n = 888) and vulva (in situ, n = 2898; invasive, n = 2685) were diagnosed between 1973 and 1988 were identified from nine population-based cancer registries. Subjects were followed through 1989 for the development of a subsequent primary cancer. RESULTS: We found increased risks of all second cancers combined among women with cancer of the vulva (observed/expected in situ = 1.5; observed/expected invasive = 1.3) and vagina (observed/expected invasive = 1.2). Most of the excess second cancers were smoking related (e.g., cancers of the lung, buccal cavity and pharynx, esophagus, nasal cavity and larynx) or related to infection with human papillomavirus (e.g., cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus). CONCLUSION: These associations indicate that the follow-up care of women with cancers of the vulva and vagina should involve efforts to promote smoking cessation. The data are also consistent with a common sexually related cause for cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus. (AM J OBSTET GYNECOL 1996;174:929-33.)

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