Dynamic changes in maternal immune biomarkers during labor in nulliparous vs multiparous women


      Immunomodulation is observed in human parturition. However, data from longitudinal studies for the prelabor phase and the active phase of labor are lacking, and no study had compared the immune responses during labor between nulliparous and multiparous women.


      This study aimed to investigate the temporal changes of immune biomarkers in maternal blood from the prelabor phase to the latent and active phases of labor and to compare the dynamic changes between nulliparous and multiparous women.

      Study Design

      A prospective case-control study was conducted on women who had induction of labor at term followed by vaginal delivery. Maternal blood was serially collected at 3 consecutive time points: (1) before the onset of labor, (2) during the latent phase of labor, and (3) during the active phase of labor. Peripheral immune cells were measured by 4-color flow cytometry, and the plasma concentrations of cytokines and chemokines were measured by cytometric bead arrays. A longitudinal comparison was made to assess the dynamic changes in inflammatory parameters over 3 time points in nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively, and a cross-sectional comparison was made between nulliparous and multiparous women.


      A total of 40 women, including 20 nulliparous and 20 multiparous, were included in the study. Prelabor circulating levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 were higher in multiparous women than in nulliparous women. In the latent phase of labor, the innate immune system in both groups responded with increases in neutrophils and interleukin 6, and the nulliparous women showed a more pronounced response. During the active phase of labor, such innate immune response continued with both groups, with additional increases in natural killer cells, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin 8, and interleukin 10. Conversely, the adaptive immune system in nulliparous women showed a reduction in both cytotoxic and helper T cells, whereas the adaptive immune system in multiparous women only had a reduction in helper T cells, showing a smaller reduction.


      Innate and adaptive immune responses partake in immunomodulation during human parturition. Nulliparous and multiparous women showed different responses in their blood levels of immune cells and biomarkers during the different phases of labor.

      Key words

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