Update on incidence of inpatient tubal ligation and long-acting reversible contraception in the United States


      Inpatient insertion of long-acting reversible contraception and immediate postpartum tubal ligation allow women to initiate highly effective contraception before hospital discharge.


      We measured rates of intrauterine device and contraceptive implant initiation and tubal ligations performed during delivery hospitalizations from 2016 to 2018 from a representative sample of US hospital discharges.

      Study Design

      We used the 2016 to 2018 National Inpatient Sample database, a 20% sample of all community hospital discharges in the United States, to identify delivery hospitalizations with concomitant intrauterine device insertion, contraceptive implant insertion, or tubal ligation. We performed weighted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between possible predictors (age, delivery mode, payer, geographic region, and year) and odds of long-acting reversible contraception and tubal ligation, and to compare characteristics of users.


      This sample included 2,216,638 discharges, representing 20% of 11,083,180 delivery hospitalizations across the United States. Intrauterine device insertion increased from 2.2 per 1000 deliveries (2016) to approximately 5.0 per 1000 deliveries (2018; P<.0001); implant insertion increased from 0.3 per 1000 deliveries (2016) to 2.5 per 1000 deliveries (2018; P<.0001); tubal ligation procedures decreased (64.2 to 62.1 per 1000 deliveries; P<.0001).
      Women who underwent a cesarean delivery had higher odds of having a tubal ligation than those who had a vaginal delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 8.83; 95% confidence interval, 8.73–8.97). Women aged <25 years had 7 times higher odds of receiving long-acting reversible contraception than of receiving tubal ligation (adjusted odds ratio, 7.38; 95% confidence interval, 6.90–7.90). Women with public insurance had almost 5 times the odds of receiving long-acting reversible contraception compared with those with commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83; 95% confidence interval, 4.59–5.06).


      Rates of long-acting reversible contraception insertion continue to increase while the rates of inpatient postpartum tubal ligations slowly decline. Variations in patient characteristics are associated with receiving long-acting reversible contraception or tubal ligation.

      Key words

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