SGS Papers| Volume 227, ISSUE 2, P304.e1-304.e9, August 2022

Development and validation of a simulation model for laparoscopic myomectomy

Published:April 27, 2022DOI:


      Simulation is an important adjunct to traditional surgical training, allowing for repetitive practice of new skills without compromising patient safety. Although several simulation models have been described and evaluated for gynecologic procedures, there is a lack of such models for laparoscopic myomectomy.


      This study aimed to design a low-cost, low-fidelity laparoscopic myomectomy simulation model and to assess the model’s validity as a training tool.

      Study Design

      The model was constructed using a “cup turner” foam cylinder, felt, a 2-inch stress ball, self-adhesive bandage wrap, multipurpose sealing wrap, red marker, and hook-and-loop fastener. Participants were recruited at a quaternary care academic center and at the Society for Gynecologic Surgeons Annual Scientific Meeting. The simulation task involved the following 2 steps: fibroid enucleation and hysterotomy repair. Validity evidence was collected by comparing expert and novice simulation task performances. Video recordings were scored by 2 blinded reviewers using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale (5–20 points) and a modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale (5–35 points), incorporating 3 novel domains specific to laparoscopic myomectomy. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the task completion times and performance scores. Interrater reliability of scoring was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient. Validity was also assessed with a post-task survey regarding the model’s realism, utility, and educational effect.


      The total cost to construct each model was under $5. A 3:1 ratio was used to recruit 15 novices and 5 experts. The median time to task completion was shorter for experts than for novices (11.8 vs 20.1 minutes; P=.004). The experts scored higher than the novices on both the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale (median 19 [range 13–20] vs 10 [6–17.5]; P=.007) and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale (31.5 [21.5–33.5] vs 18.5 [13.5–32]; P=.009). The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.95 for the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scores and 0.96 for the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scores. Most of the participants agreed that the model closely approximated the feel of fibroid enucleation (70% [14/20]) and suturing the uterus (80% [16/20]). All the participants agreed that the model was useful for learning or teaching laparoscopic myomectomy.


      This study demonstrates evidence supporting the validity of a novel, low-cost laparoscopic myomectomy model and a novel assessment scale for laparoscopic myomectomy training. This simulation model provides a targeted training tool that allows learners to focus on the key aspects of laparoscopic myomectomy and may improve readiness for the operating room.

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