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Pregnancy outcomes among women with endometriosis and fibroids: registry linkage study in Massachusetts

Published:January 29, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.12.268

      Background

      Endometriosis and uterine fibroids are common gynecologic conditions associated with a greater risk for infertility. Previous research has suggested that these conditions are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, potentially because of increased utilization of fertility treatments.

      Objective

      Our objective was to investigate whether women with a history of endometriosis or fibroids had a greater risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and whether this risk varied by infertility history and fertility treatment utilization.

      Study Design

      Deliveries (2013–2017) recorded in Massachusetts’ vital records were linked to assisted reproductive technology data, hospital stays, and all-payer claims database. We identified endometriosis and fibroids diagnoses via the all-payer claims database before index delivery. Adjusted relative risks for pregnancy complications were modeled using generalized estimating equations with a log link and Poisson distribution. The influence of subfertility or infertility and assisted reproductive technology was also investigated.

      Results

      Among 91,825 deliveries, 1560 women had endometriosis and 4212 had fibroids. Approximately 30% of women with endometriosis and 26% of women with fibroids experienced subfertility or infertility without utilizing assisted reproductive technology, and 34% of women with endometriosis and 21% of women with fibroids utilized assisted reproductive technology for the index delivery. Women with a history of endometriosis or fibroids were at a greater risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, or eclampsia (endometriosis relative risk, 1.17; fibroids relative risk, 1.08), placental abnormalities (endometriosis relative risk, 1.65; fibroids relative risk, 1.38), and cesarean delivery (endometriosis relative risk, 1.22; fibroids relative risk, 1.17) than women with no history of those conditions. Neonates born to women with a history of endometriosis or fibroids were also at a greater risk for preterm birth (endometriosis relative risk, 1.24; fibroids relative risk, 1.17). Associations between fibroids and low birthweight varied by fertility status or assisted reproductive technology (P homogeneity=.01) and were stronger among noninfertile women.

      Conclusion

      Endometriosis or fibroids increased the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, possibly warranting differential screening or treatment.

      Key words

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