Advertisement

Failed induction of labor

Published:September 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.06.103
      Induction of labor is a widely used practice. From 2016 to 2019, >1 in 3 women giving birth in the United States did so after undergoing labor induction. The obvious goal of labor induction is vaginal birth with minimal maternal or neonatal morbidity. To achieve this goal, criteria for failed labor induction are needed. Herein, we provide an evidence-based approach to safely prevent unnecessary cesarean deliveries for failed induction. Although there are no randomized trials comparing failed labor induction criteria, the observational data have been consistent: if the status of the mother and the fetus permits, at least 12 to 18 hours of oxytocin should be administered after membrane rupture before deeming an induction of labor to have failed because of nonprogression to the active phase of labor.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • United States Department of Health and Human Services
        (US DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics, Natality public-use data 2016–2019, on CDC WONDER Online Database.
        (Available at:)
        • Vahratian A.
        • Zhang J.
        • Troendle J.F.
        • Savitz D.A.
        • Siega-Riz A.M.
        Maternal prepregnancy overweight and obesity and the pattern of labor progression in term nulliparous women.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 943-951
        • van Gemund N.
        • Hardeman A.
        • Scherjon S.A.
        • Kanhai H.H.
        Intervention rates after elective induction of labor compared to labor with a spontaneous onset. A matched cohort study.
        Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003; 56: 133-138
        • Yeast J.D.
        • Jones A.
        • Poskin M.
        Induction of labor and the relationship to cesarean delivery: a review of 7001 consecutive inductions.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180: 628-633
        • Grobman W.A.
        • Rice M.M.
        • Reddy U.M.
        • et al.
        Labor induction versus expectant management in low-risk nulliparous women.
        N Engl J Med. 2018; 379: 513-523
        • Chelmow D.
        • Kilpatrick S.J.
        • Laros R.K.
        Maternal and neonatal outcomes after prolonged latent phase.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 81: 486-491
        • Maghoma J.
        • Buchmann E.J.
        Maternal and fetal risks associated with prolonged latent phase of labour.
        J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002; 22: 16-19
        • Cheng Y.W.
        • Delaney S.S.
        • Hopkins L.M.
        • Caughey A.B.
        The association between the length of first stage of labor, mode of delivery, and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing induction of labor.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 201: 477.e1-477.e7
        • Rouse D.J.
        • Owen J.
        • Hauth J.C.
        Criteria for failed labor induction: prospective evaluation of a standardized protocol.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 96: 671-677
        • Simon C.E.
        • Grobman W.A.
        When has an induction failed?.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105: 705-709
        • Rouse D.J.
        • Weiner S.J.
        • Bloom S.L.
        • et al.
        Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117: 267-272
        • Kawakita T.
        • Reddy U.M.
        • Iqbal S.N.
        • et al.
        Duration of oxytocin and rupture of the membranes before diagnosing a failed induction of labor.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 128: 373-380
        • Grobman W.A.
        • Bailit J.
        • Lai Y.
        • et al.
        Defining failed induction of labor.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 218: 122.e1-122.e8
        • De Vivo V.
        • Carbone L.
        • Saccone G.
        • et al.
        Early amniotomy after cervical ripening for induction of labor: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 222: 320-329
        • Spong C.Y.
        • Berghella V.
        • Wenstrom K.D.
        • Mercer B.M.
        • Saade G.R.
        Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 120: 1181-1193
        • Caughey A.B.
        • Cahill A.G.
        • Guise J.M.
        • Rouse D.J.
        • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (College), Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine
        Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 210: 179-193
        • Zhang J.
        • Landy H.J.
        • Ware Branch D.
        • et al.
        Contemporary patterns of spontaneous labor with normal neonatal outcomes.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116: 1281-1287
        • Nelson D.B.
        • Alexander J.M.
        • McIntire D.D.
        • Leveno K.J.
        “New or not-so-new” labor management practices and caesarean delivery for arrest of progress.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 222: 71.e1-71.e6
        • Pevzner L.
        • Powers B.L.
        • Rayburn W.F.
        • Rumney P.
        • Wing D.A.
        Effects of maternal obesity on duration and outcomes of prostaglandin cervical ripening and labor induction.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 114: 1315-1321
        • Kominiarek M.A.
        • Vanveldhuisen P.
        • Hibbard J.
        • et al.
        The maternal body mass index: a strong association with delivery route.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 203: 264.e1-264.e7
        • Ellis J.A.
        • Brown C.M.
        • Barger B.
        • Carlson N.S.
        Influence of maternal obesity on labor induction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Midwifery Womens Health. 2019; 64: 55-67
        • Gunatilake R.P.
        • Smrtka M.P.
        • Harris B.
        • et al.
        Predictors of failed trial of labor among women with an extremely obese body mass index.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209: 562.e1-562.e5
        • Hermann M.
        • Le Ray C.
        • Blondel B.
        • Goffinet F.
        • Zeitlin J.
        The risk of prelabor and intrapartum cesarean delivery among overweight and obese women: possible preventive actions.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 212: 241.e1-241.e9
        • Nuthalapaty F.S.
        • Rouse D.J.
        The impact of obesity on obstetrical practice and outcome.
        Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 47: 898-913