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The impact of preoperative pelvic pain on outcomes after vaginal reconstructive surgery

Published:August 31, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.040

      Background

      Pelvic pain is a debilitating condition that is common among women with pelvic floor disorders. Limited information is known about the impact of preoperative pelvic pain on outcomes after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

      Objective

      This study aimed to compare the outcomes after vaginal reconstructive surgery between women with and without preoperative pelvic pain.

      Study Design

      Baseline and postoperative data were analyzed from the “Outcomes Following Vaginal Prolapse Repair and Midurethral Sling trial.” The multicenter trial involved women with anterior prolapse without symptoms of stress incontinence randomized to receive either a midurethral sling or sham incisions during a vaginal reconstructive surgery. Participants completed the visual analog scale adapted for suprapubic pain and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. Preoperative pelvic pain was defined as a response of “5” or greater on pain on the visual analog scale or answering “moderately” or “quite a bit” on the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory question, “Do you usually experience pain in the lower abdomen or genital area?” Outcomes and complication rates were compared between women with and without pelvic pain.

      Results

      The “Outcomes Following Vaginal Prolapse Repair and Midurethral Sling trial” participants included 112 women with pelvic pain (58 had a midurethral sling and 54 had sham incisions) and 212 women without pelvic pain (105 had a midurethral sling and 107 had sham incisions). Women who had a midurethral sling and pelvic pain were younger than women without pelvic pain (60.3±12.1 vs 65.1±8.6; P=.004). Women who had sham incisions and pelvic pain were more likely of Hispanic ethnicity than women without pelvic pain (27.8% vs 9.4%; P=.002). Patient improvement based on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement scale did not differ between arms. Women with pelvic pain had greater improvement on the visual analog scale pain scores after a surgical procedure at 3 months (−3.1±2.9 vs −0.4±1.6; P<.001) and at 12 months (−3.4±3.0 vs −0.6±1.6; P<.001) than women without pain, although their pain scores remained higher than those without preoperative pelvic pain at all time points (P<.001 for all). Similar improvements were found on the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire. The differences observed were not affected by whether women were in the midurethral sling or sham arm of the trial. Postoperative urinary tract infection and incomplete bladder emptying did not differ between the groups.

      Conclusion

      Women with preoperative pelvic pain experienced significant improvements in pain and pelvic floor symptoms with vaginal reconstructive surgery and had similar subjective improvement postoperatively compared with women without preoperative pelvic pain. Reassuringly, the performance of a midurethral sling did not have an impact on the results.

      Key words

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