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Readmission and emergency department visits after minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy and vaginal apical pelvic organ prolapse surgery

  • Alexander A. Berger
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Alexander A. Berger, MD, MPH.
    Affiliations
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, CA
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  • Jasmine Tan-Kim
    Affiliations
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, CA
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  • Shawn A. Menefee
    Affiliations
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, CA
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Published:August 23, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.017

      Background

      Minimally invasive pelvic reconstructive surgery is becoming increasingly common; however, data on readmission and emergency department visits within 30 days of surgery are limited.

      Objective

      Our objective was to report the risk factors for 30-day readmission and emergency department visits after minimally invasive pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

      Study Design

      This retrospective cohort study included all minimally invasive urogynecologic prolapse procedures with and without concomitant hysterectomy performed within a large managed healthcare organization of 4.5 million members from 2008 to 2018. We queried the system-wide medical record for current procedural terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth or Tenth Revision codes for all included procedures and patient demographic and perioperative data. Our primary outcome was 30-day hospital readmission, and our secondary outcome was 30-day emergency department visits. Risk factors including demographics, surgical approach, and characteristics for 30-day outcomes were examined using odds ratios and chi-square tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables.

      Results

      Of the 13,445 patients undergoing prolapse surgery, 6171 patients underwent concomitant hysterectomy whereas 7274 did not. Readmission within 30 days was 2.1% for those with and 1.5% for those without a concomitant hysterectomy. Emergency department visit within 30 days was 9.5% in those with and 9.2% in those without a concomitant hysterectomy. Concomitant hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.81) was associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission. There was no difference in risk of 30-day readmission when comparing the various approaches to hysterectomy. When compared with patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy, undergoing a sacrospinous ligament suspension increased the risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–4.70) of 30-day readmission, while undergoing uterosacral ligament suspension (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.57–1.63) or colpocleisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–5.24) did not in the concomitant hysterectomy subgroup, when compared with patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy, there was no difference in the risk of 30-day readmission for sacrospinous ligament suspension (adjusted odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.61–3.34), uterosacral ligament suspension (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.61–3.34) or colpocleisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–4.02). Similarly, sacrocolpopexy was not associated with an increased risk of emergency department visits in either subgroup. For those who had a concomitant hysterectomy, the patient factors that were associated with an increased 30-day readmission risk were hypertension (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.31; P=.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–4.81; P<.01). For those whose prolapse procedure did not include concomitant hysterectomy, the patient factors that were associated with an increased 30-day readmission risk were age (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.07; P<.01) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.68–6.33; P<.01).

      Conclusion

      In women undergoing minimally invasive pelvic organ prolapse surgery, sacrocolpopexy was not associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission and emergency department visits. Clinicians may consider surgical approach and other factors when counseling patients about their risks after minimally invasive pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

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