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Two-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic meningomyelocele closure has fewer adverse neonatal outcomes than open hysterotomy closure

      Background

      In utero closure of meningomyelocele using an open hysterotomy approach is associated with preterm delivery and adverse neonatal outcomes.

      Objective

      This study compared the neonatal outcomes in in utero meningomyelocele closure using a 2-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic approach vs the conventional open hysterotomy approach.

      Study Design

      This retrospective cohort study included all consecutive patients who underwent in utero meningomyelocele closure using open hysterotomy (n=44) or a 2-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic approach (n=46) at a single institution between 2012 and 2020. The 2-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic closure was composed of the following 3 layers: a bovine collagen patch, a myofascial layer, and a skin. The frequency of respiratory distress syndrome and a composite of other adverse neonatal outcomes, including retinopathy of prematurity, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal death, were compared between the study groups. Regression analyses were performed to determine any association between the fetoscopic closure and adverse neonatal outcomes, adjusted for several confounders, including gestational age of <37 weeks at delivery.

      Results

      The fetoscopic closure was associated with a lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome than the open hysterotomy closure (11.5% [5 of 45] vs 29.5% [13 of 44]; P=.037). The proportion of neonates with a composite of other adverse neonatal outcomes in the fetoscopic group was half of that observed patients in the open hysterotomy group; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (4.3% [2 of 46] vs 9.1% [4 of 44]; P=.429). Here, regression analysis has demonstrated that fetoscopic meningomyelocele closure was associated with a lower risk of respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.84; P=.026) than open hysterotomy closure.

      Conclusion

      In utero meningomyelocele closure using a 2-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic approach was associated with a lower risk of respiratory distress syndrome than the conventional open hysterotomy meningomyelocele closure.

      Key words

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