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Trends, characteristics, and outcomes of placenta accreta spectrum: a national study in the United States

Published:April 20, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.04.233

      Background

      Although an infrequent occurrence, the placenta can adhere abnormally to the gravid uterus leading to significantly high maternal morbidity and mortality during cesarean delivery. Contemporary national statistics related to a morbidly adherent placenta, referred to as placenta accreta spectrum, are needed.

      Objective

      This study aimed to examine national trends, characteristics, and perioperative outcomes of women who underwent cesarean delivery for placenta accreta spectrum in the United States.

      Study Design

      This is a population-based retrospective, observational study querying the National Inpatient Sample. The study cohort included women who underwent cesarean delivery from October 2015 to December 2017 and had a diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum. The main outcome measures were patient characteristics and surgical outcomes related to placenta accreta spectrum assessed by the generalized estimating equation on multivariable analysis. The temporal trend of placenta accreta spectrum was also assessed by linear segmented regression with log transformation.

      Results

      Of 2,727,477 cases who underwent cesarean delivery during the study period, 8030 (0.29%) had the diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum. Placenta accreta was the most common diagnosis (n=6205, 0.23%), followed by percreta (n=1060, 0.04%) and increta (n=765, 0.03%). The number of placenta accreta spectrum cases increased by 2.1% every quarter year from 0.27% to 0.32% (P=.004). On multivariable analysis, (1) patient demographics (older age, tobacco use, recent diagnosis, higher comorbidity, and use of assisted reproductive technology), (2) pregnancy characteristics (placenta previa, previous cesarean delivery, breech presentation, and grand multiparity), and (3) hospital factors (urban teaching center and large bed capacity hospital) represented the independent characteristics related to placenta accreta spectrum (all, P<.05). The median gestational age at cesarean delivery was 36 weeks for placenta accreta and 34 weeks for both placenta increta and percreta vs 39 weeks for non–placenta accreta spectrum cases (P<.001). On multivariable analysis, cesarean delivery complicated by placenta accreta spectrum was associated with increased risk of any surgical morbidities (78.3% vs 10.6%), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined severe maternal morbidity (60.3% vs 3.1%), hemorrhage (54.1% vs 3.9%), coagulopathy (5.3% vs 0.3%), shock (5.0% vs 0.1%), urinary tract injury (8.3% vs 0.2%), and death (0.25% vs 0.01%) compared with cesarean delivery without placenta accreta spectrum. When further analyzed by subtype, cesarean delivery for placenta increta and percreta was associated with higher likelihood of hysterectomy (0.4% for non–placenta accreta spectrum, 45.8% for accreta, 82.4% for increta, 78.3% for percreta; P<.001) and urinary tract injury (0.2% for non–placenta accreta spectrum, 5.2% for accreta, 11.8% for increta, 24.5% for percreta; P<.001). Moreover, women in the placenta increta and percreta groups had markedly increased risks of surgical mortality compared with those without placenta accreta spectrum (increta, odds ratio, 19.9; and percreta, odds ratio, 32.1).

      Conclusion

      Patient characteristics and outcomes differ across the placenta accreta spectrum subtypes, and women with placenta increta and percreta have considerably high surgical morbidity and mortality risks. Notably, 1 in 313 women undergoing cesarean delivery had a diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum by the end of 2017, and the incidence seems to be higher than reported in previous studies.

      Key words

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