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Intraoperative tranexamic acid to decrease blood loss during myomectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Published:March 27, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.019

      Background

      Myomectomy is associated with a significant risk of hemorrhage. Tranexamic acid is a synthetic lysine derivative with antifibrinolytic activity used in other surgical disciplines to reduce blood loss during surgery. However, its utility in gynecologic surgery is not well understood.

      Objective

      This study aimed to determine the effect of early administration of intravenous tranexamic acid on perioperative bleeding and blood transfusion requirements in women undergoing myomectomy.

      Study Design

      This study was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in an academic teaching hospital. Women with symptomatic fibroids thought to be at risk for large intraoperative blood loss who met the following criteria were included in the study: (1) at least 1 fibroid ≥10 cm, (2) any intramural or broad ligament fibroid ≥6 cm, and/or (3) at least 5 total fibroids based on preoperative imaging. Patients were randomized to receive a single intravenous bolus injection of tranexamic acid 15 mg/kg (intervention group) versus an intravenous bolus injection of saline of equivalent volume (placebo group) 20 minutes before the initial surgical incision. Perioperative bleeding was defined by measuring intraoperative estimated blood loss, change between pre- and postoperative hemoglobin, and frequency of blood transfusions. Estimated blood loss was calculated by combining the blood volume collected within the suction canister and the weight of used sponges. The 2 groups were compared for age; body mass index; perioperative hemoglobin and hematocrit; perioperative blood loss; duration of surgery; blood transfusion requirements; and the number, total weight, and volume of myomas removed.

      Results

      A total of 60 patients (30 per arm) were enrolled into the study between March 1, 2015, and January 29, 2018. Age, body mass index, baseline hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, number and total weight of myomas removed, and size of myomas did not differ between arms. Of 60 patients, 32 (53%) had laparoscopic myomectomy, 24 (40%) had robotic myomectomy, and 4 (7%) had laparotomy. Median estimated blood loss was 200 mL for the tranexamic acid group and 240 mL for the placebo group (P=.88). There was no difference in median duration of surgery (165 vs 164 minutes; P=.64) or change in perioperative hemoglobin (1.00 vs 1.1 g/dL; P=.64). Patients in the tranexamic acid group did not require blood transfusions; however, 4 patients (13.3%) in the placebo group (P=.11) required blood transfusions.

      Conclusion

      Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic myomectomies was not associated with decreased blood loss.

      Key words

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