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Multimodal opioid-sparing postoperative pain regimen compared with the standard postoperative pain regimen in vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

      Background

      Postoperative pain control after urogynecological surgery has traditionally been opioid centered with frequent narcotic administration. Few studies have addressed optimal pain control strategies for vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery that limit opioid use.

      Objective

      The objective of the study was to determine whether, ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol, a novel opioid-sparing multimodal postoperative pain regimen has improved pain control compared with the standard postoperative pain regimen in patients undergoing inpatient vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery.

      Study Design

      This was a multicenter randomized controlled trial of women undergoing vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery. Patients were randomized to the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol postoperative pain regimen or the standard regimen. The ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol regimen consists of around-the-clock ice packs, around-the-clock oral acetaminophen, around-the-clock intravenous ketorolac, and intravenous hydromorphone for breakthrough pain. The standard regimen consists of as-needed ibuprofen, as-needed acetaminophen/oxycodone, and intravenous hydromorphone for breakthrough pain. The primary outcome was postoperative day 1 pain evaluated the morning after surgery using a visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes included the validated Quality of Recovery Questionnaire, satisfaction scores, inpatient narcotic consumption, outpatient pain medication consumption, and visual analog scale scores at other time intervals. In all, 27 patients in each arm were required to detect a mean difference of 25 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (90% power).

      Results

      Thirty patients were randomized to ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol and 33 to the standard therapy. Patient and surgical demographics were similar. The median morning visual analog scale pain score was lower in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group (20 mm vs 40 mm, P = .03). Numerical median pain scores were lower at the 96 hour phone call in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group (2 vs 3, P = .04). Patients randomized to the ICE-T regimen received fewer narcotics (expressed in oral morphine equivalents) from the postanesthesia care unit exit to discharge (2.9 vs 20.4, P < .001) and received fewer narcotics during the entire hospitalization (55.7 vs 91.2, P < .001). At 96 hour follow up, patients in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group used 4.9 ketorolac tablets compared with 4.6 oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets in the standard group (P = .81); however, ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol patients required more acetaminophen than ibuprofen by patients in the standard arm (10.7 vs 6.2 tablets, P = .012). There were no differences in Quality of Recovery Questionnaire or satisfaction scores either in the morning after surgery or at 96 hour follow up.

      Conclusion

      The ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol multimodal pain regimen offers improved pain control the morning after surgery and 96 hours postoperatively compared with the standard regimen with no differences in patient satisfaction and quality of recovery. Ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol can significantly limit postoperative inpatient narcotic use and eliminate outpatient narcotic use in patients undergoing vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery.

      Key words

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