Characterizing anxiety at the first encounter in women presenting to the clinic: the CAFÉ study


      Clinically based anxiety questionnaires measure 2 forms of anxiety that are known as state anxiety and trait anxiety. State anxiety is temporary and is sensitive to change; trait anxiety is a generalized propensity to be anxious.


      Our study aims to characterize the reasons for anxiety among women about the initial consultation for their pelvic floor disorders to measure change in participant state anxiety after the visit and to correlate improvement in anxiety with visit satisfaction.

      Study Design

      All new patients at our tertiary urogynecology clinic were invited to participate. After giving consent, participants completed pre- and postvisit questionnaires. Providers were blinded to pre- and postvisit questionnaire responses. The previsit questionnaires included the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and the 6-item short form of the Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were also asked to list their previsit anxieties. The postvisit questionnaires comprised of the Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory, patient global impression of improvement of participant anxiety, patient satisfaction, and the participant’s perception of whether her anxiety was addressed during the visit. The anxieties listed by participants were then reviewed independently and categorized by 2 of the authors. A separate panel arbitrated when there were disagreements among anxiety categories.


      Fifty primarily white (66%) women with a median age of 53 years (interquartile range, 41–66) completed the study. The visit diagnoses included stress urinary incontinence (54%), urge urinary incontinence (46%), myofascial pain (28%), pelvic organ prolapse (20%), and recurrent urinary tract infection (12%). Less than one-quarter of participants (22%) had a history of anxiety diagnosis. The average previsit Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory score was 42.9 (standard deviation, 11.98) which decreased by an average of 12.60 points in the postvisit (95% confidence interval, –16.56 to –8.64; P<.001). Postvisit decreased anxiety was associated with improvements in the patient global impression of improvement anxiety (P<.001) and participants’ perception that their anxiety symptoms had been addressed completely (P=.045). The most reported causes for consultation related anxiety were lack of knowledge of diagnosis and ramifications, personal or social issues, and fear of the physical examination. Participants reported that improvements in anxiety were related to patient education and reassurance, medical staff appreciation, and acceptable treatment plan. Participants who reported complete satisfaction demonstrated a greater decrease in the postvisit Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores compared with the participants who did not report complete satisfaction (P=.045). Changes in the Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory score were not associated with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (P=.35) or Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scores (P=.78).


      Women with the highest satisfaction after their initial urogynecology visit also demonstrated the largest decreases in anxiety after the visit. Changes in anxiety scores were not correlated with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory or with measures of generalized anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7). Recognizing and addressing patient anxiety may help physicians better treat their patients and improve overall patient satisfaction.

      Key words

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