Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
- Epidemiology of urinary incontinence (UI) and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and anal (AI) incontinence.in: Abrams P. Cardozo L. Wagg A. Wein A. Incontinence. 6th ed. Health Publications Ltd, Paris2016: 17-24
- Leaking urine: prevalence and associated factors in Australian women.Neurourol Urodyn. 1999; 18: 567-577
- The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and their relationship to gender, age, parity and mode of delivery.BJOG. 2000; 107: 1460-1470
- Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery and cesarean section; Norwegian EPINCONT Study.N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 900-907
- The effect of pregnancy and mode of delivery on the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 193: 512-518
- The prevalence of urinary incontinence 20 years after childbirth: a national cohort study in singleton primiparae after vaginal or caesarean delivery.BJOG. 2013; 120: 144-151
- A comparison of long-term consequences of vaginal delivery vs caesarean section on the prevalence, severity and bothersomeness of urinary incontinence subtypes: a national cohort study in primiparous women.BJOG. 2013; 120: 1548-1555
- Urinary incontinence in nulliparous women aged 25-64 years: a national survey.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 216: 149.e1-149.e11
- Validation of a severity index in female urinary incontinence and its implementation in an epidemiological survey.J Epidemiol Community Health. 1993; 47: 497-499
- An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction.Int Urogynecol J. 2010; 21: 5-26
- Maternal adaptations in preparation for parturition predict uncomplicated spontaneous delivery outcome.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 211: 630.e1-630.e7
- Pregnancy-induced dynamic and structural changes of reproductive tract collagen.Biophys J. 2016; 111: 57-68
- Postpartum recovery of levator hiatus and bladder neck mobility in relation to pregnancy.Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125: 531-539
- Pelvic floor biometry in Chinese primiparous women 1 year after delivery: a prospective observational study.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 43: 466-474
- Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor: changes in anatomy during and after first pregnancy.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 44: 476-480
- Urinary incontinence symptoms during and after pregnancy in continent and incontinent primiparas.Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007; 18: 147-151
- Lower urinary tract symptoms in primiparous women before and during pregnancy.Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012; 285: 1205-1210
- Antenatal prediction of postpartum urinary and fecal incontinence.Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 94: 689-694
- Effects of carrying a pregnancy and of method of delivery on urinary incontinence: a prospective cohort study.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2004; 4: 4
- Effect of mode of delivery on the incidence of urinary incontinence in primiparous women.Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113: 134-141
- Prevalence of postpartum urinary incontinence: a systematic review.Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010; 89: 1511-1522
- Prevalence and risk factors for peri- and postpartum urinary incontinence in primiparous women in China: a prospective longitudinal study.Int Urogynecol J. 2012; 23: 563-572
- Does cesarean section reduce postpartum urinary incontinence? A systematic review.Birth. 2007; 34: 228-237
- Pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Pregnancy, childbirth and the pelvic floor.in: Abrams P. Cardozo L. Khoury S. Wein A. Incontinence. 6th ed. Health Publications Ltd, Paris2017: 375-385
- A review of the impact of pregnancy and childbirth on pelvic floor function as assessed by objective measurement techniques.Int Urogynecol J. 2018; 29: 327-338
- Urinary incontinence persisting after childbirth: extent, delivery history, and effects in a 12-year longitudinal cohort study.BJOG. 2016; 123: 1022-1029
- Symptoms of stress incontinence 1 year after childbirth: prevalence and predictors in a national Swedish sample.Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004; 83: 928-936
- Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.Front Physiol. 2012; 3: 260
- Fecundity, pregnancy outcomes, and breastfeeding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a large cohort survey.Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48: 427-432
- Design strategies to improve study accuracy, restriction.in: Modern Epidemiology. 3rd edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2008: 168-182
- A quality study of a medical birth registry.Scand J Soc Med. 1990; 2: 143-148
- Design strategies to improve study accuracy.in: Rothman K.J. Greenland S. Lash T.L. Modern epidemiology. 3rd edition. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia2008: 168-182
- Temporal latency between pelvic floor trauma and presentation for prolapse surgery: a retrospective observational study.Int Urogynecol J. 2015; 26: 1185-1189
- Risks of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery in relation to mode of childbirth.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 204: 70.e1-70.e7
- Micturition habits and incontinence at age 17: reinvestigation of a cohort studied at age 7.Br J Urol. 1995; 76: 231-234
Supported by a national grant (nr 11315) and from the Healthcare Committee, Region Västra Götaland, and grants from the Göteborg Medical Society, Hjalmar Svensson Fund, and Alice Swenzon Fund.
The funding source had no role in study design, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report.
I.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget (SCA)/Essity, Astellas Pharma and Allergan; M.G. has received honoraria from SCA/Essity and Astellas Pharma for speaker participation. The remaining authors report no conflict of interest.
Cite this article as: Gyhagen M, Åkervall S, Molin M, et al. The effect of childbirth on urinary incontinence: a matched cohort study in women aged 40–64 years. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019;221:322.e1-17.