Uterine pathology in transmasculine persons on testosterone: a retrospective multicenter case series

Published:December 20, 2018DOI:


      As part of transition, transmasculine persons often use testosterone gender-affirming hormone therapy; however, there is limited data on its long-term effects. The impact of exogenous testosterone on uterine pathology remains unclear. While testosterone achieves amenorrhea in the majority of this population, persistence of abnormal uterine bleeding can be difficult to manage. Excess androgens in cisgender females are associated with pathologic uterine processes such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometrial hyperplasia, or cancer. There are no guidelines for management of abnormal uterine bleeding or endometrial surveillance in this population.


      The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of uterine pathology after the initiation of testosterone in transmasculine persons.

      Materials and Methods

      A retrospective, multicenter case series was performed. Uterine pathology reports of transmasculine persons who received testosterone and subsequently underwent hysterectomy were reviewed. The endometrial phase and endometrial thickness were recorded.


      A total of 94 subjects met search criteria. The mean age of participants was 30 ± 8.6 years, and the mean interval from initiation of testosterone to hysterectomy was 36.7 ± 36.6 months. Active endometrium was found in the majority of patients (n = 65; 69.1%). One patient had complex hyperplasia without atypia. There were no cases of endometrial cancer.


      Despite amenorrhea in the majority of transmasculine persons on testosterone, endometrial activity persists with predominantly proliferative endometrium on histopathology. Individualized counseling for abnormal uterine bleeding is encouraged in this patient population.

      Key Words

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