Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
- The healthy human microbiome.Genome Med. 2016; 8: 51
- Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.Nature. 2012; 486: 207-214
- Early-life host-microbiome interphase: the key frontier for immune development.Front Pediatr. 2017; 5: 111
- The mother-offspring dyad: microbial transmission, immune interactions and allergy development.J Intern Med. 2017; 282: 484-495
- A microbial perspective of human developmental biology.Nature. 2016; 535: 48-55
- The role of the microbiome in the developmental origins of health and disease.Pediatrics. 2018; 141
- Human gut colonization may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 23129
- Amniotic fluid infection and the intact fetal membrane.Obstet Gynecol. 1962; 19: 736-739
- Evaluation of amniotic fluid for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.Am J Clin Pathol. 1976; 65: 58-63
- Bacterial colonization of amniotic fluid from intact fetal membranes.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 136: 796-804
- The placenta harbors a unique microbiome.Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6: 237ra65
- Bacterial communities found in placental tissues are associated with severe chorioamnionitis and adverse birth outcomes.PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0180167
- A critical assessment of the “sterile womb” and “in utero colonization” hypotheses: implications for research on the pioneer infant microbiome.Microbiome. 2017; 5: 48
- Does a prenatal bacterial microbiota exist?.Mucosal Immunol. 2017; 10: 598-601
- Comparison of placenta samples with contamination controls does not provide evidence for a distinct placenta microbiota.Microbiome. 2016; 4: 29
- Preventing atopic dermatitis and allergies in children–the PreventADALL study.Allergy. 2018 Apr 30; (https://doi.org/10.1111/all.13468. [Epub ahead of print])
- Absolute quantification by droplet digital PCR versus analog real-time PCR.Nat Methods. 2013; 10: 1003-1005
- Group-specific primer and probe sets to detect methanogenic communities using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005; 89: 670-679
- QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.Nat Methods. 2010; 7: 335-336
- Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST.Bioinformatics. 2010; 26: 2460-2461
- UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads.Nat Methods. 2013; 10: 996-998
- The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools.Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41: D590-D596
- Reagent and laboratory contamination can critically impact sequence-based microbiome analyses.BMC Biol. 2014; 12: 87
- The frequency of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and histologic chorioamnionitis in women at term with intact membranes in the presence or absence of labor.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 199: 375.e1-375.e5
- Widespread microbial invasion of the chorioamniotic membranes is a consequence and not a cause of intra-amniotic infection.Lab Invest. 2009; 89: 924-936
- Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107: 11971-11975
- Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life.Cell Host Microbe. 2015; 17: 852
- Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery.Nat Med. 2017; 23: 314-326
- Diversity of microbes in amniotic fluid.Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012; 17: 2-11
- The first microbial environment of infants born by C-section: the operating room microbes.Microbiome. 2015; 3: 59
- Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 4680-4687
- Infection and labor. VII. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in spontaneous rupture of membranes at term.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992; 166: 129-133
- Parallel detection of lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterial DNA in the chorioamnion and vagina of pregnant women at term.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018; : 1-9
- The risk of intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and histologic chorioamnionitis in term pregnant women with intact membranes and labor.Placenta. 2011; 32: 516-521
- Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth.Lancet. 2008; 371: 75-84
- Uncultivated bacteria as etiologic agents of intra-amniotic inflammation leading to preterm birth.J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47: 38-47
- Amniotic fluid infection, inflammation, and colonization in preterm labor with intact membranes.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 210: 125.e1-125.e15
- Partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants via vaginal microbial transfer.Nat Med. 2016; 22: 250-253
- Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in midtrimester pregnancies using molecular microbiology.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 217: 71.e1-71.e5
- Review: Maternal health and the placental microbiome.Placenta. 2017; 54: 30-37
- Maternal microbiomes in preterm birth: recent progress and analytical pipelines.Semin Perinatol. 2017; 41: 392-400
- The placental membrane microbiome is altered among subjects with spontaneous preterm birth with and without chorioamnionitis.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 214: 627.e1-627.e16
- The placenta is the center of the chronic disease universe.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 213: S14-S20
A full list of the members of the PreventADALL study group can be found in the supplementary information.
The study was performed within the Oslo Research Group of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood, the Lung and Environment (ORAACLE).
The PreventADALL study was funded by the following public funding bodies: Regional Health Board South East, Norwegian Research Council; Oslo University Hospital; University of Oslo; Health and Rehabilitation Norway; Foundation for Healthcare and Allergy Research in Sweden-Vårdalstiftelsen; Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association's Research Foundation; Swedish Research Councile-Initiative for Clinical Therapy Research; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Strategic Research Area Healthcare Science (SFO-V) Karolinska Institutet; Østfold Hospital Trust; European Union (Mechanisms of Development of Allergy (MeDALL) project), by unrestricted grants from the Norwegian Association of Asthma and Allergy; Kloster Foundation, Thermo-Fisher, Uppsala, Sweden by supplying allergen reagents; Norwegian Society of Dermatology and Venerology; Arne Ingel's legat.
Disclosure: Dr Rehbinder has received honorarium for presentations on atopic dermatitis from Sanofi Genzyme, MEDA, and Omega Pharma. The other authors report no conflict of interest.
Cite this article as: Rehbinder EM, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Staff AC, et al. Is amniotic fluid of women with uncomplicated term pregnancies free of bacteria? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018;219:289.e1-12.