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Mixing problems in using indicators for measuring regional blood flow

  • Author Footnotes
    * Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Japan).
    E. Ushioda
    Footnotes
    * Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Japan).
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    ** Recipient of Career Development Award HD-00253.
    B. Nuwayhid
    Footnotes
    ** Recipient of Career Development Award HD-00253.
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • K. Tabsh
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    *** Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Finland).
    R. Erkkola
    Footnotes
    *** Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Finland).
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • C.R. Brinkman III
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • N.S. Assali
    Correspondence
    UCLA School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles, California 90024
    Affiliations
    From the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    * Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Japan).
    ** Recipient of Career Development Award HD-00253.
    *** Recipient of National Institutes of Health Fogarty Grant, Fellow in Reproductive Physiology (from Finland).
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      A basic requirement for using indicators for measuring blood flow is adequate mixing of the indicator with blood prior to sampling the site. This requirement has been met by depositing the indicator in the heart and sampling from an artery. Recently, authors have injected microspheres into veins and sampled from venous sites. The present studies were designed to investigate the mixing problems in sheep and rabbits by means of Cardio-Green and labeled microspheres. The indicators were injected at different points in the circulatory system, and blood was sampled at different levels of the venous and arterial systems. Results show the following. (a) When an indicator of small molecular size (Cardio-Green) is allowed to pass through the heart chambers, adequate mixing is achieved, yielding accurate and reproducible results. (b) When any indicator (Cardio-Green or microspheres) is injected into veins, and sampling is done at any point in the venous system, mixing is inadequate, yielding flow results which are inconsistent and erratic. (c) For an indicator of large molecular size (microspheres), injecting into the left side of the heart and sampling from arterial sites yield accurate and reproducible results regardless of whether blood is sampled continuously or intermittently.
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