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- Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. ACOG Committee Opinion no. 637.Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 126: 234-238
- Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.J Forens Sci. 2010; 55: 1209-1217
- A comparison of meconium screening outcomes as an indicator of the impact of state-level relaxation of marijuana policy.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015; 156: e104-e105
- Association between stillbirth and illicit drug use and smoking during pregnancy.Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 123: 113-125
- Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy.Pediatr Res. 2012; 71: 215-219
- Marijuana impairs growth in mid-gestation fetuses.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005; 27: 221-229
- Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R study.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psycyiatry. 2009; 48: 1173-1181
- Maternal cannabis use and birth weight: a meta-analysis.Addiction. 1997; 92: 1553-1560
- Cannabis and the developing brain: insights from behavior.Eur J Pharmacol. 2008; 585: 441-452
- Prenatal toxicity, maternal distribution and placental transfer of tetrahydrocannabinol.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1972; 180: 446-453
- Plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in dams and fetuses following acute or multiple prenatal dosing in rats.Life Sci. 1989; 44: 697-701
- Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond.Addict Biol. 2008; 13: 147-159
- Marijuana, Spice “herbal high,” and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization.Drug Test Anal. 2013; 5: 27-45
- Maternal periconceptional illicit drug use and the risk of congenital malformations.Epidemiology. 2008; 20: 60-66
- Endocannabinoid signaling controls pyramidal cell specification and long range axon patterning.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008; 105: 8760-8765
- Cannabinoid CB(1) receptors colocalize with tyrosin hydroxlase in cultured fetal mesencephalic neurons and the action increases the levels of this enzyme.Brain Res. 2000; 857: 56-65
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- The emerging functions of endocannabinoid signaling during CNS development.Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2007; 28: 83-92
- Endocannabinoids: a new family of lipid mediators involved in the regulation of neural cell development.Curr Pharm Des. 2006; 12: 2319-2325
- Control of the cell survival/death decision by cannabinoids.J Mol Med. 2001; 78: 613-625
- Altering cannabinoid signaling during development disrupts neuronal activity.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005; 102: 9388-9393
- In utero marijuana exposure associated with abnormal amygdala dopamine D2 gene expression in the human fetus.Biol Psychiatry. 2004; 56: 909-915
- Neonatal behavioral correlates of prenatal exposure to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol in a low risk population.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1987; 9: 1-7
- Effects of cocaine and alcohol use in pregnancy on neonatal growth and neurobehavioral status.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1992; 14: 23-33
- Exposure to marijuana during pregnancy alters neurobehavior in the early neonatal period.J Pediatr. 2006; 149: 781-787
- The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: disturbances in neonatal sleep cycling and arousal.Pediatr Res. 1988; 24: 101-105
- Prenatal alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use: infant mental and motor development.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995; 17: 479-489
- Prenatal marijuana exposure and neonatal outcomes in Jamaica: an ethnographic study.Pediatrics. 1994; 93: 254-260
- Prenatal marijuana exposure and intelligence test performance at age 6.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008; 47: 254-263
- Manual for the Wide Range Achievement Test, revised.Jastak Associates, Wilmington (DE)1984
- Prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age 10.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004; 26: 521-532
- Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at ten years.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2002; 24: 309-320
- Effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on child behavior problems at age 10.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2000; 22: 325-336
- The effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on delinquent behaviors are mediated by measures of neurocognitive functioning.Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011; 33: 129-136
- A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure: an emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function.Neurotoxcol Teratol. 2001; 23: 1-11
- Effects of prenatal marihuana on visuospatial working memory: an fMRI study in young adults.Neurotoxciol Teratol. 2006; 28: 286-295
ProCon.org. (March 14, 2016). 24 legal medical marijuana states and DC. Available at: http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881. Accessed June 4, 2016.
Oregon Health Authority. Public Health Division, Medical Marijuana Dispensary Program. Information bulletin 2015-04. Sept. 10, 2015, page 3. Available at: www.oregon.gov/oha/mmj/Bulletins/Informational%20Bulletin%202015-04%20Early%20Retail%20Sales.pdf.
Colorado Department of Health. Available at: www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/MJ_RMEP_Pregnancy-Breastfeeding-Clinical-Guidelines.pdf. Accessed June 4, 2016.
American Medical Association. Marijuana use in pregnancy. Policy Statement, Nov. 16, 2015. Available at: www.ama-assn.org. Accessed June 18, 2016.
The author reports no conflict of interest.