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Prophylactic external version

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      Conclusions

      1. Breech deliveries should be prevented on account of the resulting increase in fetal mortality and morbidity.
      2. The frequency of breech deliveries may be reduced from 80 to 90 per cent by the routine practice of external version during the last two months of pregnancy. Anesthesia is rarely necessary.
      3. External version has no apparent harmful effect on the mother or baby during pregnancy or labor.
      4. The turning is usually easy to perform and may be tried either in the direction of flexion or extension of the fetus, the former, as a rule, being more successful.
      5. The version may have to be repeated one or more times before the presentation remains cephalic. Abdominal pads and bandages are apparently of little value in preventing a return to breech presentation.
      6. External version should be given greater emphasis as an essential part of prenatal care.
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