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Outcomes of expectantly managed pregnancies with multiple gestations and preterm premature rupture of membranes prior to 26 weeks

Published:September 13, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.09.005

      Objective

      The objective of the study was to determine the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of expectantly managed multifetal pregnancies complicated by early preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) prior to 26 weeks.

      Study Design

      This was a retrospective cohort of all multifetal pregnancies complicated by documented PPROM occurring before 26 0/7 weeks and managed expectantly by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between July 4, 2002, and Sept. 1, 2013. Neonatal and maternal outcomes were assessed and comparisons made between the fetus with ruptured membranes and the first fetus to deliver with intact membranes.

      Results

      Twenty-three pregnancies (46 fetuses) were analyzed with a median gestational age at PPROM of 22.9 weeks; 74% experienced PPROM at less than 24 weeks’ gestation. A median latency of 11 days was achieved with expectant management. Of the 46 neonates, 20 (43%) survived to hospital discharge. Of these, 12 (60%) experienced severe neonatal morbidity defined as defined as grade III or IV intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgical intervention, and/or grade 3 or 4 retinopathy of prematurity. Eight neonates survived to hospital discharge without severe neonatal morbidity. The multiple with ruptured membranes was more likely to experience intrauterine demise but otherwise had similar outcomes as the multiple with intact membranes. Maternal morbidity was considerable, with 7 of 23 pregnancies (30%) complicated by clinical chorioamnionitis, 12 of 23 (52%) delivering by cesarean, of which 3 of 12 (25%) were classical cesarean deliveries.

      Conclusion

      Overall, neonatal survival to hospital discharge was 43%, but only 17% survived without significant neonatal morbidity. These data provide a basis for counseling and management of women with multifetal gestation complicated by very early PPROM.

      Key words

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