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To determine correlations between insulin sensitivity and gene expression in omental tissue of non-obese pregnant women.
Microarray gene profiling using Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Expression BeadChips was performed on omental adipose tissue obtained during non-laboring cesarean section in a fasting state from 11 non-obese non-diabetic pregnant women. Measuring transcript levels of selected genes using quantitative real-time PCR validated findings. Matusda-Insulin sensitivity Index (IS) was calculated from glucose and insulin levels obtained from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test. homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) was calculated and correlated with IS. Linear regression analysis was performed and list was filtered at P<0.01.
510 genes significantly correlated with IS; of these 325 matched to known genes in NIH David. Twenty-three genes were determined to be involved in immune/inflammatory, vascular or metabolic pathways. Two insulin signaling pathways genes: insulin receptor (INSR) (r=0.84), which stimulates glucose uptake, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK1) (r=0.78), which is anabolic, were strongly positively correlated with IS. Leptin which has been shown to suppress insulin gene expression and glucose transport was negatively correlated with IS. Of 13 genes with immune/inflammatory; 10 were positively correlated and 3 negatively correlated with IS.
Our findings suggest differential gene expressions that may be associated with cellular mechanisms modulating insulin sensitivity and resistance in visceral adipose tissue in healthy pregnancy. The unexpected finding of most immune/inflammatory genes correlating positively with insulin sensitivity indicates the need for further studies in clarifying relations between functional variants and local protein expressions.