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To profile the differential gene expression of omental tissue in healthy controls and gestational diabetic subjects (GDM).
Subjects included 14 non-obese, normal glucose tolerant, healthy pregnant women and 3 gestational diabetic subjects. Omental tissue was obtained at elective cesarean delivery. Gene expression was evaluated using microarray and validated by RT-PCR.
428 genes were differentially expressed in GDM compared to controls. 66 genes mapped to Kegg pathways, with 31 genes mapping to metabolic pathways as follows: immune/inflammatory (n=13, 3 upregulated, 10 downregulated), insulin/carbohydrate signaling (n=8; 3 upregulated, 5 downregulated), amino acid metabolism (n=5; 1upregulated, 4 downregulated), lipid (3; 1 upregulated, 2 downregulated) and vascular (n=3 downregulated) pathways.
In the insulin/carbohydrate signaling pathways, phosphorylase, glycogen; brain (PYGB) and glucosidase, alpha; acid (GAA), both essential to glycogenolysis, were upregulated while the citric acid cycle genes of malate dehydrogenase 1, NAD (MDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+), soluble (IDH1) were both down regulated (Table).
1Differentially expressed genes of carbohydrate metabolism and insulin signaling pathways in omental tissue of GDM vs controls
Carbohydrate metabolism pathways suggest biologically plausible gestational diabetes cellular mechanisms. There was an unexpected finding of negative associations of GDM with most immune/inflammatory genes. Further studies are required to clarify the functional relevance of these gene expressions.