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Data on pregnancy outcomes of teenage women who deliver are limited. Given pelvic immaturity, there is concern for adverse events. The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes of women <18 years of age to those ≥18 years of age.
This was a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive women who underwent labor between 2004 and 2008. Pregnancy outcomes including vaginal laceration, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord gas pH <7.2 or <7.05, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission in women <18 years of age were compared to women ≥18. A second analysis comparing only term deliveries was performed. Exclusion criteria included multiple gestations and congenital anomalies. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed; logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders.
Of 8,390 women, 663 were <18 years of age. After adjusting for nulliparity, African American race, gestational hypertension, prior cesarean, and birthweight >4000 grams teen women were at an increased risk of vaginal laceration (aOR 1.59, CI 1.33-1.89), but there was no difference in postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord gas pH <7.2 or pH <7.05, or NICU admission. There were 5,386 women who delivered at term, 500 were teenage women. After adjusting for nulliparity, African American race, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, prior cesarean, or birthweight >4000 grams there was no difference in laceration, postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord gas pH <7.20 or pH <7.05.
Our results suggest, while the teenage pelvis may not be mature, risks of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, abnormal umbilical cord gases, or NICU admission are similar when comparing women <18 years of age and those ≥18 years of age. There is, however, an increased risk of vaginal laceration in teenage women.
1Outcomes of teenage pregnancies: all deliveries