18: Maternal magnesium supplementation reduces incidence of intrauterine growth restriction in a rat model and modulates cytokine expression


      Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of preterm birth and both are associated with enhanced inflammatory response. We sought to investigate whether magnesium attenuates inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of IUGR.

      Study Design

      Pregnant female Wistar rats (12 wks old, GD18) were divided in four groups: normal diet with bilateral uterine artery ligation (BL; n=6) or sham surgery (SH; n=5); and magnesium chloride 1% in drinking water throughout gestation + BL: MgBL (n=5) or sham: MgSH (n=5). Dams were euthanized 24 hrs postsurgery (GD19). We collected: maternal plasma, fetal plasma (pooled from a single dam), individual amniotic fluid samples, and placentas from live fetal pups only (BL=36; SH=20; MgBL=20; MgSH=20). All samples were analyzed for cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL1, CCL2 and TNFα; sensitivity <3pg/ml) using multiplex. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and t-test.


      The average fetal and placental weights were significantly lower in the BL dams when compared to SH dams (P<0.001) (Table 1) . The overall fetal mortality was not significantly different for BL vs. MgBL. The incidence of IUGR (Pup weight <10th) in BL vs. MgBL were 86.3% vs. 31% respectively [RR: 0.36 (CI:0.2-0.6) P <0.0001]. IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα (P<0.05) and CCL2 (P<0.001) levels were significantly increased in the BL amniotic fluids, while IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2 and CXCL1 (P<0.001) and TNFα (P<0.05) were significantly increased in BL placental tissues when compared to SH, magnesium supplementation decreased the cytokine expression of IL-1β, TNFα and CCL2 in amniotic fluid and IL1β in placental tissue of MgBL (P<0.001) (Fig. 1) . Neither maternal nor fetal plasma showed differences in cytokine levels.
      Tabled 1Outcomes
      Table thumbnail grr2


      Maternal oral magnesium supplementation reduced the incidence of BL-induced IUGR by 64% and modulated cytokine expression in amniotic fluid and placentas obtained from live IUGR fetuses in absence of maternal systemic inflammation. Supported by Oxenhorn Family.