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44: A comprehensive metagenomic catalogue of microbiota across body sites in primates: a high fat maternal diet alters the offspring microbiome to 1 year of age

      Objective

      Microbiota are present from at least a time of birth, with up to 10-fold the number of organisms (the “microbiome”) and a collective genome (the “metagenome”) which exceeds ours by >100-fold. An altered gut microbiome has been described in association with obesity and other disease states. However, how and when these altered microbiota communities take up residence are under explored. We reasoned that our well-characterized primate model of maternal obesity would be an ideal means to decipher the relative contribution of maternal diet, obesity, and microbiota on the developmental microbiome.

      Study Design

      Age and weight-matched dams were placed on control (13%) or HF (35%) diets. Over the study interval, distinct maternal cohorts emerged: obese HF diet sensitive [HFS], obesity-resistant [HFR], and lean [CTR]. 161 comprehensive body site samples (placenta, oral, GI, fecal, GU) from these dams and their offspring (fetal and 1yr) were deep sequenced (16S V5V3 rRNA gDNA; 454FLXTitanium). Data were QC filtered and exhaustively analyzed (OTU, genera; Canberra) using our custom supervised learning and QIIME pipelines.

      Results

      Extensive computational analysis was performed on 596 megabytes of generated metagenomic data (>1.8 million filtered reads of 494nt). We observed significant clustering of maternal and offspring (fetal and 1yr) OTU predominately by body site (panel A; >3285 OTU genera). Of noted interest, at 1yr of age the core gut microbiome is defined by a HF maternal diet and irrespective of obesity nor postwean diet (B). Using limited discriminate sets, we were able to classify offspring microbiome profiles by maternal diet (RandomForrest, 91.5% success). The maternal gut microbiome does not cluster by HFD (C).

      Conclusion

      Employing state of the art metagenomics, we demonstrate that core body site microbiomes are conserved across primate species. Moreover, HF maternal diet (not obesity nor postnatal diet) establishes a perturbed microbiome in the offspring. These data suggest that the maternal diet profoundly influences the offspring microbiome and may thus serve to arbitrate later in life obesity.
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