Advertisement

Protein intake and ovulatory infertility

      Objective

      The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility.

      Study Design

      A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility.

      Results

      During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007).

      Conclusion

      Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hull M.G.
        • Glazener C.M.
        • Kelly N.J.
        • et al.
        Population study of causes, treatment, and outcome of infertility.
        Br Med J. 1985; 291: 1693-1697
        • Katz P.
        • Nachtigall R.
        • Showstack J.
        The economic impact of the assisted reproductive technologies.
        Nat Med. 2002; 8: S29-S32
        • The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group
        Nutrition and reproduction in women.
        Hum Reprod Update. 2006; 12: 193-207
        • The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group
        Role of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the evolution of type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program: effects of Lifestyle intervention and metformin.
        Diabetes. 2005; 54: 2404-2414
        • Hjollund N.H.I.
        • Jensen T.K.
        • Bonde J.P.E.
        • Henriksen N.E.
        • Andersson A.M.
        • Skakkebaek N.E.
        Is glycosilated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?.
        Hum Reprod. 1999; 14: 1478-1482
        • Azziz R.
        • Ehrmann D.
        • Legro R.S.
        • et al.
        Troglitazone improves ovulation and hirsutism in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 1626-1632
        • Gannon M.C.
        • Nuttall F.Q.
        • Neil B.J.
        • Westphal S.A.
        The insulin and glucose responses to meals of glucose plus various protein in type II diabetic subjects.
        Metabolism. 1988; 11: 1081-1088
        • Gannon M.C.
        • Nuttall F.Q.
        • Saeed A.
        • Jordan K.
        • Hoover H.
        An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 734-741
        • Rossetti L.
        • Rothman D.L.
        • DeFronzo R.A.
        • Shulman G.I.
        Effect of dietary protein on in vivo insulin action and liver glycogen repletion.
        Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1989; 257: E212-E219
        • Lavigne C.
        • Marette A.
        • Jacques H.
        Cod and soy proteins compared with casein improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in rats.
        Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 278: E491-E500
        • Stamets K.
        • Taylor D.S.
        • Kunselman A.
        • Demers L.M.
        • Pelkamn C.L.
        • Legro R.S.
        A randomized trial of the effects of two types of short-term hypocaloric diets on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
        Fertil Steril. 2004; 81: 630-637
        • Moran L.J.
        • Noakes M.
        • Clifton P.M.
        • Tomlinson L.
        • Norman R.J.
        Dietary composition in restoring reproductive and metabolic physiology in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 812-819
        • Rich-Edwards J.W.
        • Goldman M.B.
        • Willett W.C.
        • et al.
        Adolescent body mass index and ovulatory infertility.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 171: 171-177
        • Willett W.C.
        • Sampson L.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • et al.
        Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1985; 122: 51-65
        • Salvini S.
        • Hunter D.J.
        • Sampson L.
        • et al.
        Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1989; 18: 858-867
        • Willett W.C.
        • Sampson L.
        • Browne M.L.
        • et al.
        The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1988; 127: 188-199
        • US Department of Agriculture
        USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 14.
        2001 (Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/SR14/sr14.html. Accessed July 18, 2007.)
        • Willett W.C.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1986; 124: 17-27
        • Fitzmaurice G.M.
        • Laird N.M.
        • Ware J.H.
        Applied longitudinal analysis.
        Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ2004
        • Chavarro J.E.
        • Rich-Edwards J.W.
        • Rosner B.A.
        • Willett W.C.
        Iron intake and risk of ovulatory infertility.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108: 1145-1152
        • Chavarro J.E.
        • Rich-Edwards J.W.
        • Rosner B.A.
        • Willett W.C.
        Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 231-237
        • Willett W.C.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        Chapter 11: implications of total energy intake for epidemiologic analyses.
        in: Willett W.C. Nutritional epidemiology. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, New York1998
        • Mejia-Guadarrama C.A.
        • Pasquier A.
        • Dourmad J.Y.
        • Prunier A.
        • Quesnel H.
        Protein (lysine) restriction in primiparous lactating sows: effects on metabolic state, somatotropic axis, and reproductive performance after weaning.
        J Anim Sci. 2002; 80: 3286-3300
        • Hubbard R.
        • Kosch C.L.
        • Sanchez A.
        • Sabate J.
        • Berk L.
        • Shavlik G.
        Effect of dietary protein on serum insulin and glucagon levels in hyper- and normocholesterolemic men.
        Atherosclerosis. 1989; 76: 55-61
        • Thierry van Dessel H.J.H.M.
        • Lee P.D.K.
        • Faessen G.
        • Fauser B.C.J.M.
        • Giudice L.C.
        Elevated serum levels of free insulin-like growth factor I in Polycystic ovary syndrome.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 3030-3035
        • Duleba A.J.
        • Spaczynski R.Z.
        • Olive D.L.
        Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I stimulate the proliferation of human ovarian theca-interstitial cells.
        Fertil Steril. 1998; 69: 335-340
        • Holmes M.D.
        • Pollak M.N.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Hankinson S.E.
        Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11: 852-861
        • Giovannucci E.
        • Pollak M.
        • Liu Y.
        • et al.
        Nutritional predictors of insulin-like growth factor I and their relationships to cancer in men.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12: 84-89
        • Chandra A.
        • Martinez G.M.
        • Mosher W.D.
        • Abma J.C.
        • Jones J.
        Fertility, family planning, and reproductive health of U.S. women: data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Statistics, series 23, no. 25.
        National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD2005