Advertisement

Lycopene and other carotenoid intake in relation to risk of uterine leiomyomata

  • Kathryn L. Terry
    Correspondence
    Reprints: Dr Kathryn L. Terry, Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115
    Affiliations
    Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Stacey A. Missmer
    Affiliations
    Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Susan E. Hankinson
    Affiliations
    Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Walter C. Willett
    Affiliations
    Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Search for articles by this author
  • Immaculata De Vivo
    Affiliations
    Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Search for articles by this author
Published:November 05, 2007DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.05.033

      Objective

      Carotenoids have antioxidant properties and have been associated with reduced risks of some cancers. We hypothesized that carotenoid intake may reduce the risk of diagnosed uterine leiomyoma (UL).

      Study Design

      We evaluated the associations between dietary carotenoids and risk of diagnosed UL in 82,512 premenopausal women aged 26-46 years in 1991 in the Nurses’ Health Study II over 10 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed every 4 years with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and incidence of UL was assessed biennially by questionnaire.

      Results

      Total lycopene intake was not associated with diagnosed UL risk. Intake of beta-carotene was associated with slightly increased risks of diagnosed UL; this association was restricted to current smokers (for highest vs lowest quintile, relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.76; Ptrend = .003).

      Conclusion

      Overall, our findings do not suggest that carotenoids reduce the risk of diagnosed UL. Among current smokers, high intake of beta-carotene may slightly increase risk of diagnosed UL.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Zhao S.Z.
        • Wong J.M.
        • Arguelles L.M.
        Hospitalization costs associated with leiomyoma.
        Clin Ther. 1999; 21: 563-575
        • Buttram Jr, V.C.
        • Reiter R.C.
        Uterine leiomyomata: etiology, symptomatology, and management.
        Fertil Steril. 1981; 36: 433-445
        • Stewart E.A.
        Uterine fibroids.
        Lancet. 2001; 357: 293-298
        • Stahl W.
        • Sies H.
        Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005; 1740: 101-107
        • Di Mascio P.
        • Kaiser S.
        • Sies H.
        Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher.
        Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989; 274: 532-538
        • Giovannucci E.
        Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 317-331
        • Karas M.
        • Amir H.
        • Fishman D.
        • et al.
        Lycopene interferes with cell cycle progression and insulin-like growth factor I signaling in mammary cancer cells.
        Nutr Cancer. 2000; 36: 101-111
        • Herzog A.
        • Siler U.
        • Spitzer V.
        • et al.
        Lycopene reduced gene expression of steroid targets and inflammatory markers in normal rat prostate.
        FASEB J. 2005; 19: 272-274
        • Sahin K.
        • Ozercan R.
        • Onderci M.
        • et al.
        Lycopene supplementation prevents the development of spontaneous smooth muscle tumors of the oviduct in Japanese quail.
        Nutr Cancer. 2004; 50: 181-189
      1. Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology. 2nd ed. Vol 30. New York: Oxford University Press (1998 Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics).

        • Mangels A.R.
        • Holden J.M.
        • Beecher G.R.
        • Forman M.R.
        • Lanza E.
        Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1993; 93: 284-296
        • Tonucci L.H.
        • Holden J.M.
        • Beecher G.R.
        • Khachik F.
        • Davis C.S.
        • Mulokozi G.
        Carotenoid content of thermally processed tomato-based food products.
        J Agric Food Chem. 1995; 43: 579-586
        • Michaud D.S.
        • Giovannucci E.L.
        • Ascherio A.
        • et al.
        Associations of plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary intake of specific carotenoids in samples of two prospective cohort studies using a new carotenoid database.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7: 283-290
        • Tamimi R.M.
        • Hankinson S.E.
        • Campos H.
        • et al.
        Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and risk of breast cancer.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 161: 153-160
        • Giovannucci E.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Liu Y.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Willett W.C.
        A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 391-398
        • Marshall L.M.
        • Spiegelman D.
        • Barbieri R.L.
        • et al.
        Variation in the incidence of uterine leiomyoma among premenopausal women by age and race.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 90: 967-973
        • Wise L.A.
        • Palmer J.R.
        • Stewart E.A.
        • Rosenberg L.
        Age-specific incidence rates for self-reported uterine leiomyomata in the Black Women’s Health Study.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105: 563-568
        • World Health Organization
        Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry.
        World Health Organization, Geneva1995
        • Stryker W.S.
        • Kaplan L.A.
        • Stein E.A.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Sober A.
        • Willett W.C.
        The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1988; 127: 283-296
        • Hak A.E.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Campos H.
        • Sesso H.D.
        • Gaziano J.M.
        • Willett W.
        • Ma J.
        Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and risk of myocardial infarction in a low-risk population of US male physicians.
        Circulation. 2003; 108: 802-807
        • Baron J.A.
        • Cole B.F.
        • Mott L.
        • et al.
        Neoplastic and antineoplastic effects of beta-carotene on colorectal adenoma recurrence: results of a randomized trial.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 717-722
        • Duffy S.W.
        • Warwick J.
        • Williams A.R.
        • et al.
        A simple model for potential use with a misclassified binary outcome in epidemiology.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004; 58: 712-717
        • Day Baird D.
        • Dunson D.B.
        • Hill M.C.
        • Cousins D.
        • Schectman J.M.
        High cumulative incidence of uterine leiomyoma in black and white women: ultrasound evidence.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 188: 100-107
      2. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1029-1035
        • Omenn G.S.
        • Goodman G.E.
        • Thornquist M.D.
        • et al.
        Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1150-1155
        • Mayne S.T.
        • Lippman S.M.
        Cigarettes: a smoking gun in cancer chemoprevention.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 1319-1321
        • Baron J.A.
        • Cole B.F.
        • Mott L.
        • et al.
        Neoplastic and antineoplastic effects of beta-carotene on colorectal adenoma recurrence: results of a randomized trial.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 717-722
        • Maserejian N.N.
        • Giovannucci E.
        • Rosner B.
        • Zavras A.
        • Joshipura K.
        Prospective study of fruits and vegetables and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164: 556-566
        • Touvier M.
        • Kesse E.
        • Clavel-Chapelon F.
        • Boutron-Ruault M.C.
        Dual association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 1338-1344
        • Russell R.M.
        The enigma of beta-carotene in carcinogenesis: what can be learned from animal studies.
        J Nutr. 2004; 134: 262S-268S