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Subsequent risk and presentation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or cancer after a colposcopic diagnosis of CIN 1 or less

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to determine the risk and presentation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or cancer after colposcopic diagnosis of CIN 1 or less.

      Study design

      After colposcopy for an abnormal cytology, women with CIN 1 or less had annual cytology evaluations and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) tests (Hybrid Capture II). Colposcopy was repeated if the cytology result was ASC-H, or worse, ASC-US/high-risk HPV test positive, or every 2 years if the cytology was normal/high-risk HPV test positive. Differences in rates of CIN 3 or cancer were compared by log rank Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

      Results

      With median follow-up periods of 26.3 months, 47 of 2490 women (1.9%) with CIN 1 or less subsequently had CIN 3 or cancer. Subsequent CIN 3 or cancer was more likely if the high-risk HPV test was initially positive (45/1960 women [2.3%]) compared with negative (2/530 women [0.4%]; P = .0002) and if women were older (age ≥30 years, 28/1021 women [2.7%]; age 20-29 years, 17/1017 women [1.7%]; age <20 years, 2/452 women [0.4%]; P = .045). When CIN 3 or cancer was diagnosed, 45 of 46 women (97.8%) had positive high-risk HPV test and 42/46 women (91.3%) had an abnormal cervical cytology. The yield of CIN 3 or cancer per colposcopy for women (4/205 women [2.0%]) who had normal cervical cytology/positive high-risk HPV tests was lower than for women (41/541 women [7.6%]) who had abnormal cervical cytology/positive high-risk HPV tests (chi-square test, 8.3; P < .005), and it did not increase with increasing length of follow-up.

      Conclusion

      Annual cytology and high-risk HPV tests with colposcopy for high-risk HPV test positive/abnormal cytology and at least every 2 years for high-risk HPV test positive/normal cytology is advised after a colposcopic diagnosis of CIN 1 or less.

      Key words

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