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Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease: A combined intrapartum and neonatal protocol

      Abstract

      Objective: We sought to assess the efficacy of a clinical protocol to reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection. Study design: We assessed neonatal sepsis from GBS and other organisms with use of a before-after study design to evaluate the effects of implementation of combined intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis given selectively to mothers with GBS risks and penicillin G given to all neonates. Results: In 1994, early-onset GBS infection developed in 31 of 13,887 live births (2.2/1000), 13 preterm and 18 term cases. After implementation of the prophylaxis protocol (1995), 6 of 13,527 live births had early-onset GBS (0.4/1000) (P < .001). There were no preterm (P = .0004) and 6 term GBS cases (P = .02). The efficacy continued through 1999 (0.5/1000) without an increase in neonatal infections from other bacteria. Conclusion: Combined maternal and infant antimicrobial prophylaxis can significantly and safely reduce rates of early-onset GBS infection in both preterm and term infants. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:618-26.)

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