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A reevaluation of estrogen status in postmenopausal women who smoke

  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Denise Lee Cassidenti
    Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Affiliations
    Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Malcolm C. Pike
    Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Affiliations
    Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Ariel G. Vijod
    Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Affiliations
    Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Frank Z. Stanczyk
    Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Affiliations
    Los Angeles, California
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  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Rogerio A. Lobo
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Rogerio A. Lobo, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Room 1M2, LAC + USC Medical Center, 1240 N. Mission Road, Los Angeles, CA 90033.
    Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
    Affiliations
    Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    a From the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
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      Hypoestrogenism in postmenopausal smokers has been suggested as the mechanism for the observed decreased risk of endometrial cancer and increased risk of osteoporosis. We have prospectively studied a well-matched group of smokers and nonsmokers and have evaluated their estrogen levels and compared them with existing data from the literature. We conclude that increased adrenal activity resulting in increased androgens, mainly androstenedione, is seen in postmenopausal smokers but that estrogen levels are not decreased. We hypothesize that in nonusers, unlike in users of estrogen, smoking is not associated with changes in estrogen levels and that other mechanisms must be responsible for the epidemiologic observations seen.

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