Advertisement

Depressive symptoms during pregnancy: Relationship to poor health behaviors

  • Barry Zuckerman
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Barry Zuckerm an, MD, Director, Division of Dez,eloprrterttal aitdBehavioral Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, HOB 220, Boston, MA 02118.
    Affiliations
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital 1Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health (Social and Behavioral Sciences Section), Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Hortensia Amaro
    Affiliations
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital 1Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health (Social and Behavioral Sciences Section), Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Howard Bauchner
    Affiliations
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital 1Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health (Social and Behavioral Sciences Section), Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Howard Cabral
    Affiliations
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital 1Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health (Social and Behavioral Sciences Section), Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Although depression is well studied in women, little information is available regarding depression during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlates of depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale during pregnancy. Between 1984 and 1987, 1014 women, primarily poor and of minority status, who attended the prenatal clinic at Boston City Hospital were interviewed and were asked to furnish urine samples that were then assayed for marijuana and cocaine metabolites. Scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale ranged from 0 to 57, with a median score of 16. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy were associated with increased life stress (p < 0.001), decreased social support (p < 0.001), poor weight gain (p < 0.01), and the use of cigarettes (p < 0.001), alcohol (p < 0.001), and cocaine (p < 0.05). These findings are important because these health behaviors have been demonstrated to have an adverse effect on infant outcome. Interventions to change health behaviors during pregnancy should consider a woman's affective state, social context, and mental health. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;160:1107-11.)

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Zuckerman BS
        • Beardslee WR
        Maternal depression: a concern for pediatricians.
        Pediatrics. 1987; 79: 110-117
        • Watson JP
        • Elliott SA
        • Rugg AJ
        • Brough DI
        Psychiatric disorder in pregnancy and the first postnatal year.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1984; 144: 453-462
        • O'Hara MW
        Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986; 43: 569-573
        • Cox JL
        • Connor Y
        • Kendell RE
        Prospective study of the psychiatric disorders of childbirth.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1982; 140: 111-117
        • Kumar R
        • Robson K
        Neurotic disturbance during pregnancy and the puerperium: preliminary report of a prospective survey of 119 primparae..
        in: Sandler M Mental illness in pregnancy and the puerperium. Oxford Medical Publications, London1978
        • Jarrahi-Zadeh A
        • Kane FJ
        • Van de Castle RL
        • Lachenbruch PA
        • Ewing JA
        Emotional and cognitive changes in pregnancy and early puerperium.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1969; 115: 797-805
        • Buesching DP
        • Glasser ML
        • Frate DA
        Progression of depression in the prenatal and postpartum periods.
        Women Health. 1986; 11: 61-78
        • Ikard FF
        • Tomkins S
        The experience of affect as a determinant of smoking behavior. A series of validity studies.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1973; 81: 172-181
        • Paton S
        • Kessler R
        • Kandel D
        Depressive mood and adolescent illicit drug use: a longitudinal analysis.
        J Genet Psychol. 1977; 131: 267-289
        • Beckman LJ
        Perceived antecedents and effects of alcohol consumption in women.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980; 41: 518-530
        • Kielholz P
        Alcohol and depression.
        Br J Addict. 1970; 65: 187-193
        • Radloff LS
        The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population.
        Appl Psychol Measurement. 1977; 1: 385-401
        • Zuckerman B
        • Frank DA
        • Hingson R
        • et al.
        Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth.
        N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 762-768
        • Saranson IG
        • Johnson JH
        • Siegel JM
        Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the life experiences survey.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1978; 46: 932-946
        • Norbeck JS
        • Lindsey AM
        • Carrieri VL
        The development of the Norbeck social support questionnaire: normative data and validity testing.
        Nurs Res. 1981; 32: 264-268
        • Rosett HL
        • Weiner L
        • Lee A
        • Zuckerman B
        Patterns of alcohol consumption and fetal development.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1983; 61: 539-546
        • Sexton M
        • Hebel JR
        A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its effect on birth weight.
        JAMA. 1984; 251: 911-914