Urethral axis and sphincteric function

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Position and mobility of the urethral axis are considered factors influencing urethral competence. Specific correlation between the urethral axis and its sphincteric function is lacking. Eighty-four patients with the symptom of stress urinary incontinence and 31 patients with sensory symptomatology but no urinary incontinence underwent clinical and urodynamic evaluation. This included objective assessment of urethral axial positions and mobility with use of a specially designed protractor. Comparative analysis of urethral axial data was done between 70 incontinent women with objective evidence of sphincteric incompetence and 24 continent women without it. The urethral axis at rest, during bearing down, and in its total excursion were found to be not significantly different and distributed similarly between both groups. Assessment of the urethral axis was found to be not predictive of urethral function.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Katz GP
        • Blaivas JG
        A diagnostic dilemma: when urodynamic findings differ from the clinical impression.
        J Urol. 1983; 129: 1170
        • Hodgkinson CP
        Relationships of the female urethra and bladder in urinary stress incontinence.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953; 65: 560
        • Bates CP
        • Whiteside CG
        • Turner-Warwick R
        Synchronous cine/pressure/flow cystourethrography with special influence to stress and urge incontinence.
        Br J Urol. 1970; 42: 714
        • Crystle CD
        • Charme LS
        • Copeland WE
        Q-tip test in stress urinary incontinence.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1971; 38: 313
        • Constantinou CE
        Resting and stress urethral pressures as a clinical guide to the mechanism of continence in the female patient.
        Urol Clin North Am. 1985; 12: 247
        • Fantl JA
        Genuine stress incontinence.
        in: Sciarra JJ Gynecology and obstetrics. Harper & Row, Philadelphia1984
        • Asmussen M
        • Ulmstead U
        Simultaneous urethrocystometry and urethral pressure profile measurements with a new technique.
        Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1975; 5: 385
        • Anderson RS
        • Shepard AM
        • Feneley RCL
        Microtransducer urethral profile methodology: variations caused by transducer orientation.
        J Urol. 1983; 130: 727
        • Hilton P
        • Stanton SL
        Urethral pressure measurements by microtip transducer: the result of symptom-free women and those with genuine stress incontinence.
        Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1983; 90: 919
        • Bates CP
        • Bradley WE
        • Glen ES
        • et al.
        Fourth report on the standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function.
        Br J Urol. 1981; 53: 333
        • Green TH
        Development of a plan for the diagnosis and treatment of urinary stress incontinence.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1962; 83: 632
        • Hodgkinson CP
        Stress urinary incontinence.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970; 108: 1141
        • McGuire EJ
        • Lytton B
        • Pepe V
        • Kohorn EI
        Stress urinary incontinence.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1976; 47: 255
        • Asmussen M
        Aspects of continence, incontinence and micturition in women based on simultaneous urethral cystometry.
        in: Ostergard DR Gynecologic urology and urodynamics: theory and practice. Williams & Wilkin, Baltimore1980
        • Constantinou CE
        • Govan DE
        Spatial distribution and timing of transmitted and reflexly generated urethral pressures in healthy women.
        J Urol. 1982; 127: 964
        • Stanton SL
        Urethral sphincteric incompetence.
        in: Stanton SL Clinical gynecologic urology. CV Mosby, St. Louis1984: 169