Etiologic factors in pelvic inflammatory disease in Sudanese women

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Pelvic inflammatory disease constitutes a major gynecologic problem in the Sudan as in most African countries. This article reviews studies of three important causes of PID involving Sudanese women. Women who attended the gynecologic clinic of Khartoum Hospital with a complaint of vaginal discharge were tested for gonococcal infection to evaluate this potential etiology; only 1.4% of these women had gonorrhea. Since septic abortions also result in PID, we studied 2,447 women admitted to Khartoum hospitals in 1976; only 0.4% of these women had had septic abortions. Female circumcision, which is widely practiced in the Sudan, is the subject of an ongoing epidemiologic study. The clinical impression is that this harmful tradition is an important cause of PID among Sudanese women.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Kleida M.
        • Omer F.
        • Rushwan H.
        A study of sexually transmitted diseases in Khartoum Teaching Hospital.
        in: Presented at Vth Sudanese Congress of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, KhartoumFebruary, 1978 (Submitted for publication)
        • Gordon S.
        ed. 3. Sexuality Today and Tomorrow. Duxbury Press, North Seituate, Mass1978
        • Rushwan H.
        Clinical and epidemiological aspects of incomplete abortion in Khartoum.
        in: ed. 3. Doctorate thesis. University of Khartoum, 1976
        • Ferguson J.G.
        Consultant report: 1269 illegally induced or spontaneous abortions.
        International Fertility Research Program, Consultant Report, Columbia. September, 1974;
        • Ferguson J.G.
        • Goldsmith A.G.
        Aborto en America Latina.
        Rev. Colomb. Obstet. Ginecol. 1976; 27: 77
        • Rushwan H.
        • Doodoh A.
        • Chi I.
        • Bernard R.
        Contraceptive practice following incomplete abortion in Djakharta and Khartoum.
        Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 1977; 15: 243
        • Shandall A.
        Circumcision and infibulation of females.
        Sudan Med. J. 1976; 5: 4